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Lua library documentation of Animate; for cinematics, cut-scenes and other nice animations
Updated Wed, 21 Jun 2023 15:56:12 +0000 by Wuzzy

Lua library: Animate

This library provides functions that aid cinematic/cut-scene creation and functions for handling events.

Structure of an Animate script

The Animate library is somewhat complex, so this section explains how scripts using the Animate library are supposed to look like and how the functions interact.

Initial code

For every script using this library, the following lines need to be at the beginning of onGameTick :

function onGameTick() AnimUnWait() if ShowAnimation() == false then return end ExecuteAfterAnimations() CheckEvents() end

Also, AnimInit() needs to be called in onGameInit() :

function onGameInit() AnimInit() end

Each of these functions will be explained below.

Also, if your script calls SetInputMask , you must replace each call of it with AnimSetInputMask (see function description below). Failing to do so may lead to bugs.

Also, you must not call SetCinematicMode ever in your script.

Data structures

Animation step

The animation step step is the primary data structure of this library. A step is a single action in an animation specified in table form. A step table must have the following fields:

  • func is the function to be executed. It can be any function that returns false when it needs to be called again in following game ticks (e.g. AnimMove ). It could theoretically be any function, but usually you want to use one of the cinematic functions here.
  • args is a list containing the arguments that need to be passed to the function given, in the same order
  • swh is an optional boolean value that defaults to true and denotes whether the current hedgehog should be switched to the hog given as argument 1 in args . You must set this to false if argument 1 is not a hedgehog.

Example 1: -- This calls `AnimSay(myHog, "Snails!", SAY_SAY, 3000)`, -- meaning the hedgehog gear `myHog` will say "Snails!" and set the animation delay to 3000 milliseconds -- Because `swh` is not set, it is true, so `myHog` also becomes the current hedgehog local step1 = {func = AnimSay, args = {myHog, "Snails!", SAY_SAY, 3000}}

Example 2: -- Moves myHog to the left local step2 = {func = AnimMove, args = {myHog, "Left", 2000, 0}}

Example 3: -- Shows the caption "Hello, world!". Because argument 1 is not a hedgehog, `swh` is false local step3 = {func = AddCaption, swh = false, args = {"Hello, world!"}}


An animation is a data structure that is a sequence of animation steps. It is specified as a table of steps. The steps will be executed in the specified order.

Animation list

The animation list is a list of all animations that were added but not performed so far. This is an internal table, you can not access it directly. You add to the list with AddAnim .

How animation works

The Animation library has two states: Animating and Not Animating. By default, the game starts in the Not Animating state, meaning the game behaves normally. In Animating state, the library looks at the list of registered animations and executes them one by one, in that order.

You are expected to add to the list of animatinons with AddAnim . If the script is animating, this animation will be played after all the others have been played. If the script is not animating, the animation will be played immediately. (Assuming you have correctly added the boilerplate code mentioned at the beginning of this page.)

Animations are basically cut scenes. During animation, Cinematic Mode is enabled (see SetCinematicMode which is part of the main Lua API) and most player input is blocked. Animations can cause various things to happen, like move hedgehogs, show speech bubbles, explode the landscape or just call (almost) any function. During an animation, the player can only watch or optionally skip (details later). The player can still move the camera.

There is also an internal wait time. It starts at 0 and a few cinematic functions as well as AnimWait can increase this time. The wait time counts down to 0, during which the script waits to execute the next animation step. Adding to the wait time is important to time your animation correctly.

Once all animations in the animation list have been played, the game returns to the Not Animating state and behaves normally again.


You can optionally allow to skip animations so allows players can skip the currently running animation. Skipping is not enabled by default. By convention, pressing the Precise key in singleplayer missions should skip the current animation. We recommend to use the following code to enable skipping with the Precise key:

function onPrecise() if AnimInProgress() then SetAnimSkip(true) end end

When the current animation is skipped, it is actually immediately stopped, so the game might be in a state you do not want it to be in. For example, if hogs walk in your animation, the hogs will not be in the intended position if the animation was skipped. To fix this, you need to use AddSkipFunction (see below for an example).

Animation example

This is the complete source code for a mission script demonstrating a simple animation in which a single hedgeghog says Hello and walks to the left. It shows the basic structure of a script using animations. This is only an example, your own implementation may vary.

HedgewarsScriptLoad("/Scripts/Animate.lua") -- Mandatory code for Animate library function onGameTick() AnimUnWait() if ShowAnimation() == false then return end ExecuteAfterAnimations() CheckEvents() end -- Store hegehog ID here local hog1 function onGameInit() -- Mandatory code for Animate library AnimInit() -- Configure mission Map = "Ruler" Theme = "Nature" Explosives = 0 MinesNum = 0 CaseFreq = 0 GameFlags = gfOneClanMode -- Add team and hog AddTeam("Test Team", -1, "egg", "Castle", "Default_qau", "cm_test") hog1 = AddHog("Hog 1", 0, 100, "NoHat") SetGearPosition(hog1, 1100, 770) end -- Skip animation when pressing [Precise] function onPrecise() if AnimInProgress() then SetAnimSkip(true) end end -- This function sets up the example animation local function addWalkAnim() -- X coordinate that hog walks to local goalX = 900 -- Animation example: Hog says hello and then walks to the left and then speaks again local animation = { -- List of animation steps {func = AnimSay, args = {hog1, "Hello. I will walk to the left.", SAY_SAY, 2000}}, {func = AnimMove, args = {hog1, "Left", goalX, 0}}, {func = AnimSay, args = {hog1, "I reached my goal!", SAY_SAY, 2000}}, } -- Add skip function if player presses the skip key local function afterAnimSkip(args) -- Teleport hog SetGearPosition(hog1, goalX, GetY(hog1)) -- Face left (because hog walked left) HogTurnLeft(hog1, true) -- Stop walking SetGearMessage(hog1, 0) end AddSkipFunction(animation, afterAnimSkip, {}) -- This will be execuded when the animation ended local function afterWalkAnim() AddCaption("Animation completed!") ShowMission("Animation completed!", "It's over!", "You can return to the menu now.", 0, 0) end AddFunction({func = afterWalkAnim, args = {}}) -- Add the animation to the animation list. -- In our case, it wiill be perfmored immediately. AddAnim(animation) end -- This makes sure the animation starts on the first turn local hasAnimationStarted = false function onNewTurn() if hasAnimationStarted then return end if CurrentHedgehog ~= hog1 then SwitchHog(hog1) end addWalkAnim() hasAnimationStarted = true end

Function reference

Cinematic handling


Initializes variables used by the other functions. Needs to be called in onGameInit .

An optional convenience parameter startAnimating is available; if set to true , the game will start in “animation” mode which enables cinematic mode and disables all controls except precise for skipping. This is useful if you want to indicate that an animation will be played right at the start and the player must not be allowed to use any controls before the animation is over. If you set this parameter to true , you also must play at least one animation after this, otherwise the game will be stuck.


Inserts step after the current step (read: action) in the animation list. Useful when an action depends on variables (e.g. positions). It can be used mostly with AnimCustomFunction . Note: In case of multiple consecutive calls, steps need to be added in reverse order.

Example: -- Show explosion effects around hedgehog `liveHog`, then delete it function BlowHog(deadHog) AnimInsertStepNext({func = DeleteGear, args = {deadHog}, swh = false}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimVisualGear, args = {deadHog, GetX(deadHog), GetY(deadHog), vgtBigExplosion, 0, true}, swh = false}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimWait, args = {deadHog, 1200}}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimVisualGear, args = {deadHog, GetX(deadHog) + 20, GetY(deadHog), vgtExplosion, 0, true}, swh = false}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimWait, args = {deadHog, 100}}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimVisualGear, args = {deadHog, GetX(deadHog) + 10, GetY(deadHog), vgtExplosion, 0, true}, swh = false}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimWait, args = {deadHog, 100}}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimVisualGear, args = {deadHog, GetX(deadHog) - 10, GetY(deadHog), vgtExplosion, 0, true}, swh = false}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimWait, args = {deadHog, 100}}) AnimInsertStepNext({func = AnimVisualGear, args = {deadHog, GetX(deadHog) - 20, GetY(deadHog), vgtExplosion, 0, true}, swh = false}) end animation = {{func = AnimCustomFunction, args = {liveHog, BlowHog, {deadHog}}}} AddAnim(animation)


Performs the first animation (if possible) in the animation list and removes it once it’s done. Returns true if the animation list was empty and no animation was played or false if an animation was played.

It needs to be used in onGameTick . Cut-scenes need to be added with AddAnim(animation) .


Performs the specified animation manually. Returns true if the animation was performed successfully, false otherwise. This function is internally used; its use in scripts is not recommended.


Adds animation to the animation list. animation is a list of animation steps; see data structures above for details.

Example: -- Makes myHog say "Snails! SNAILS!, wait 3 seconds, move it to the left until its X coordinate equals 2000, then show the caption "But he found no more snails ..." animation = { {func = AnimSay, args = {myHog, "Snails! SNAILS!", SAY_SAY, 3000}}, {func = AnimMove, args = {myHog, "Left", 2000, 0}}, {func = AddCaption, swh = false, args = {"But he found no more snails ..."}} } AddAnim(animation)


Removes animation from the animation list.

AddSkipFunction(animation, func, args)

Adds func to the array of functions used to skip animations, associating it with animation . When the animation is skipped, the function is called with args as arguments.

Example: -- Makes a hedgehog `myHog` walk to the left until X=1000 but if the animation was skipped, teleport the hog to this X position instead. local walkAnimation = { {func = AnimMove, args = {myHog, "Left", 1000, 0}}, } AddAnim(walkAnimation) local function afterWalkAnimationSkip(args) -- Teleport hog SetGearPosition(myHog, 1000, GetY(myHog)) -- Stop walking SetGearMessage(myHog, 0) end AddSkipFunction(walkAnimation, afterWalkAnimationSkip, {})


Removes the skip function associated with animation .


Sets the state of animation skipping to true or false . If true , animations will be skipped. It is useful in case the player is allowed to skip the animation. Note this library will automatically reset the state back to false from time to time.

By convention, a cut scene in a singleplayer mission should be skipped when the player presses the Precise key. In this case, use the onPrecise callback for this.

Example: function onPrecise() if AnimInProgress() then SetAnimSkip(true) end end


Returns true if a amimation is currently taking place, false otherwise.


Calls the functions (added with AddFunction ) that need to be executed after the animation. The best location for this function call is in onGameTick .


Adds element to the functions array that are to be called after the animation. element is a table with the keys: func , args .

Example: AddFunction({func = myAfterAnim, args = {2}})


Removes the first function from the aforementioned list.


Decreases the wait time used by animations. It is best called in onGameTick .


Call this function instead of SetInputMask if you want to set the input mask in a way that does not conflict with the Animate library.

Internally, the input mask you provide is simply AND-ed with the input mask used by the Animate library. Otherwise, this function works like SetInputMask .

If you call SetInputMask directly, note that it might get quickly overwritten by the Animate library!

Cinematic functions

These are the functions you can specify in animation steps. Unless specified otherwise, the gear argument of each function switches the CurrentHedgehog to gear and follows it. This behavior can be disabled with swh=false (see definition of animation steps above).


Switches the CurrentHedgehog to gear and follows it.


Follows gear .

AnimGiveState(gear, state)

Sets the gear state of gear to state (full bitmask).

AnimRemoveState(gear, state)

Removes the gear state state from gear .

AnimWait(gear, time)

Increases the wait time by time (in milliseconds) without changing the CurrentHedgehog . The gear argument is ignored (it exists for compability with `ShowAnimation).

AnimGearWait(gear, time)

Increases the wait time by time (in milliseconds) and changes the CurrentHedgehog to gear .

AnimSay(gear, text, manner, time)

Calls HogSay with the first three arguments and increases the wait time by time .

Example: animation = { {func = AnimSay, args = {gear1, "You're so defensive!", SAY_SAY, 2500}}, {func = AnimSay, args = {gear2, "No, I'm not!", SAY_SAY, 2000}} }

AnimSound(gear, sound, time)

Plays the sound sound and increases the wait time by time .

AnimTurn(hog, dir)

Makes hog face in direction dir , where dir equals either "Right" or "Left" .

AnimMove(hog, dir, x, y, maxMoveTime)

Makes hog walk in direction dir ( "Right" or "Left" ) until either its horizontal coordinate equals x or its vertical coordinate equals y . maxMoveTime is optional. If specified, the animation will automatically end if this number of milliseconds have passed.

AnimJump(hog, jumpType)

Makes hog perform a jump of type jumpType , where jumpType is one of:

  • "long" : Long jump
  • "high" : High jump
  • "back" : Backjump

AnimSetGearPosition(gear, x, y, fall)

Sets the position of gear to ( x , y ). If the optional argument fall does not equal false then the gear is given a small falling velocity in order to get around exact positioning.

AnimDisappear(gear, x, y)

Teleports the gear to ( x , y ), adding some effects at the previous position and sounds. Doesn’t follow the gear.

AnimOutOfNowhere(gear [, x, y])

Teleports the gear to ( x , y ), adding effects and sounds at the final position. Follows gear. If x and y are not specified, gear will not teleport, only the animation is played.

AnimTeleportGear(gear, x, y)

Teleports the gear to ( x , y ), adding effects and sounds both at the starting position and the final position. Follows gear.

AnimVisualGear(gear, x, y, vgType, state, critical)

Calls AddVisualGear with arguments second to sixth. gear is for compatibility only.

AnimCaption(gear, text, time)

Adds text as caption and increases wait time by time .

AnimCustomFunction(gear, func, args)

Calls the function func with args as arguments. This function is useful, for instance, when the cinematic uses the position of a gear at the moment of execution. If func needs to be called in following game ticks then it should return false.

Example: -- Make hog1 and hog2 look at each other function NeedToTurn(hog1, hog2) if GetX(hog1) < GetX(hog2) then HogTurnLeft(hog1, false) HogTurnLeft(hog2, true) else HogTurnLeft(hog2, false) HogTurnLeft(hog1, true) end end animation = {{func = AnimCustomFunction, args = {hog1, NeedToTurn, {hog1, hog2}}}}

Event handling

Events are pairs of functions that are used to check for various conditions. One of them is for verification and, if it returns true , the second function is called.

AddEvent(condFunc, condArgs, doFunc, doArgs, evType)

Adds the functions condFunc and doFunc to the events list. They get called with the respective args ( condArgs and doArgs ). condFunc will get called in every game tick until it returns true or is removed. Once it returns true , doFunc is called and they are or are not removed from the list, depending on evType ( 0 for removal, 1 for keeping). An evType of 1 is useful for repeating actions (e.g. every time a hog gets damaged, do something).

Example: --[[ This code shows the mission text "Nice Work" if the hog `myHog` has an X coordinate above 1500, but only once. Also, it immediately gives `myHog` 5 grenades once it runs out of grenades. It does that every time this happens. ]] function CheckPos() return GetX(myHog) > 1500 end function CheckAmmo() return GetAmmoCount(myHog, amGrenade) == 0 end function DoPos() ShowMission("Scooter", "Mover", "Nice Work", 0, 0) end function DoAmmo() AddAmmo(myHog, amGrenade, 5) end AddEvent(CheckPos, {}, DoPos, {}, 0) -- Add event that gets removed on completion AddEvent(CheckAmmo, {}, DoAmmo, {}, 1) -- Add repeating event

AddNewEvent(condFunc, condArgs, doFunc, doArgs, evType)

Does the same as AddEvent , but first checks if the event is already in the list so that it isn’t added twice.

RemoveEventFunc(cFunc, cArgs)

Removes the event or events that have cFunc as the condition checking function. If cArgs does not equal nil then only those events get removed that have cArgs as arguments for cFunc , too.

Example: AddEvent(condFunc1, condArgs1, doFunc, doArgs) AddEvent(condFunc1, condArgs2, doFunc, doArgs) AddEvent(condFunc1, condArgs2, doFunc, doArgs) AddEvent(condFunc2, condArgs1, doFunc, doArgs) AddEvent(condFunc2, condArgs2, doFunc, doArgs) RemoveEventFunc(condFunc1) --Removes all three events that have condFunc1 RemoveEventFunc(condFunc2, condArgs1) --Removes a single event


Verifies all the condition functions in the events list and calls the respective ‘action’ functions if the conditions are met. If the evType of a completed event equals 0 then it is removed from the list. This function is best placed in onGameTick .



Returns true if the gear is considered to be resting (not moving). (dX and dY are very small) or if the gear does not exist.